Headline, December 01 2023/ ''' BARNS OF MONEY '''


WHAT HAVE YOU DONE TO REDUCE POVERTY IN THE WORLD? ! First and Foremost ! the Esteemed engineers and Global Founders of !WOW! :  

Rabo, Haleema, Hussain, Salar, Sannan, Vishnu, Mustafa and then -

Dee, Sahar, Ahsen, Hamza, Bilal, Jordan, Shahrayar, Zaeem, Danyial, Lakshmi, Emaan, Haaniya, Zilli, Juniper.......  And billions of students in the world?

THESE VERY DAYS, the very rich are very selfish. Believe you me, that in the times ahead, Things could get really ugly. 

MILAN THROUGHOUT MUCH OF THE WORLD'S HISTORY - the wealthiest have been viewed in their communities as a potentially unfavorable presence, and they have attempted to allay this sentiment by using their riches to support their societies in times of crises like plagues, famines or wars.

This symbiotic relationship no longer exists. Today's rich, their wealth largely preserved through the Great Recession and the Covid-19 pandemic, have opposed reforms aimed at tapping their resources to fund mitigation policies of all kinds.

This is historically exceptional development. Helping foot the bill of major crises has long been the main social function attributed to the rich by Western culture. In the past, when the wealthiest have been perceived to be insensitive to the plight of the masses -

And especially when they have appeared to be profiteering from such plight [or have simply been suspected of doing so], society has become unstable, leading to riots, open revolts and anti-rich violence.

As history has the unpleasant feature of repeating itself, we would do well to consider recent developments, including legislators inability to increase taxes on the rich, from a long term perspective.

Let us begin with the consideration that the presence of very rich, or even superrich, individuals has always been somewhat troubling for Western societies. Medieval theologians regarded the rich as sinners and thought that the building of large fortunes should have been discouraged.

At the very least, the rich were expected not to appear to be wealthy and provide generous bequests to charitable institutions to the benefit of their souls.

But with time, as new economic opportunities in trade and in finance led to the accumulation of fortunes of unprecedented size, the increased presence of extremely wealthy individuals within the community could no longer be dismissed as an anomaly.

From the 15th century, and beginning with the most economically developed areas of Europe such as central-northern Italy, the rich were assigned a specific social rule : to act as private reserves of money into which the community could tap in times of dire need.

Nobody made this point better than the Tuscan humanist Poggio Bracciolini. In his treatise '' De avaritia '' [ " On avarice ''], completed in 1428, he argued that cities that follow the tradition of instituting public granaries to build up food reserves should also be well provided of '' many greedy individuals, in order ..... to constitute a kind of private barn of money  able to be of  assistance to everybody.''

There is abundant historical evidence that for centuries, across the West, the rich have dutifully fulfilled their role of ''barns  of money'' in a variety of ways, which included accepting to pay exceptional taxes during crises or to provide loans to governments.

Often, in early modern times, these were technically '' forced '' loans to ruling authorities, although the fact that they were not a prerogative of absolute monarchies but were also required, usually in wartime, by republican governments such as that of Venice should make us wary of considering them the mere expression of arbitrary power.

Indeed, the rich merchants who were the main ''victims'' of forced loans were also the rulers of patrician republics and understood they were contributing their private resources to the public good.

For example, forced loans were imposed by Venice upon its richest citizens after the terrible plague of 1630 as well as to fund an exhausting war with the Ottoman Empire during 1645-69, although on both occasions the republic was able to raise much greater amounts from its own patricians by means of voluntary loans.

The Honour and Serving of the Latest Global Operational Research on the exceptional selfishness of today's superrich, continues. The World Students Society thanks author Guido Alfani.

With respectful dedication to Mankind, and then Students, Professors and Teachers of the world. See You all prepare for Great Global Elections on !WOW! :  wssciw.blogspot.com and Twitter X !E-WOW! - The Ecosystem 2011 :

Good Night and God Bless

SAM Daily Times - the Voice of the Voiceless


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