Headline, September 03 2020/ ''' THESE ANIMALS TEARS '''



THE CROCODILES TEARS : EVEN FOR THOSE CREATURES THAT are unable to weep, tears are just so vital for the vision.

WHETHER FROM DOGS - PARROTS - OR TORTOISES : the stuff that seeps out of animals eyes is simply ''fascinating''.
Dr. Arianne Pontes Oria stands firm : She does not make animals cry for a living.

Technically only humans can cry, or weep in response to an emotional state, said Dr. Oria, a veterinarian at the Federal University of Bahia in Brazil. For humans, crying is a way to physically manifest feelings, which are difficult to study and confirm in other creatures.

But Dr. Oria does collect animal tears - the liquid that keeps eyes clean, and nourished. In vertebrates, or animals with backbones, tears are vital for vision, Dr. Oria said. And yet, these captivating fluids have been paid little to no attention, except in a select few mammals.

''A lot of vision, we're not aware of, until it's a problem,'' said Sebastian Echeverri, a biologist who studies animal vision but doesn't work with Dr. Oria's team. ''We notice when tears are missing.''

That's a lot of shame, Dr. Oria said. Because whether from dogs, parrots or tortoises, the stuff that seeps out of animals' eyes is simply ''fascinating,'' she said.

As she and her colleagues have reported in a series of recent papers, including one published this month in the journal Frontiers in Veterinary Science, tears can be great equalizers : Across several branches of the tree of life, vertebrates seem to swaddle their eyes with fluid in much the same way.

But to help them cope with the challenges of various environments, evolution has tinkered with the tears of the world's creatures in ways that scientists are only beginning to explore. Research like Dr. Oria's could offer a glimpse into the myriad paths that eyes could have taken to maximize their health and the well-being of the organisms that use them.

Given how often eye problems can plague humans and other animals, there's ''a lot to be learned from these adaptions,'' said Dr. Sara Thomasy, a veterinary ophthalmologist at the University of California, Davis, who wasn't involved in Dr. Oria's studies.

Dr. Oria began her research by studying the tears of caimans, which have ''a very curious ocular surface,'' she said. While humans blink about 15 times, a minute, helping spread fresh-squeezed tears over the cornea, caimans can go about two hours without batting an eyelid [of which they have three]. But their eyes don't dry out.

''We started to think. What kind of molecules give these tear films stability?' It's amazing,'' Dr. Oria said. The answer, she added, could add the development of treatments for dry eyes and and other ophthalmic troubles in people.

In the years that followed, her team's list of tear donors has expanded to to include other reptiles such as turtles and tortoises, as well as hawks, parrots, owls and other birds. [Dr. Oria and her colleagues have also added animals like humans, dogs and horses, for the sake of comparison.]

For animals in general, the collection process is mostly the same : During a routine veterinary exam, a human researcher will gently restrain the creature, wait for it to relax and then dab carefully at its eyes with a strip of absorbent paper.

This isn't always easy. Researchers must take extra care to be gentle with the animals, which don't always shed as many tears as scientists would like. Some species are even fussier at eye exams than people are. Macaws apparently ''hate to be restrained after lunch,'' Dr. Oria said.

But the entire process comes down to what's best for the patients. Whatever tears they're willing to offer, Dr. Orik said, ''we respect that, even if it's only a tiny amount.''

Some of the weirdest tears out there, Dr. Oria said, come from loggerhead sea turtles, whose eyes secrete fluids so viscous they are practically sap - and impossible to collect with the supplies she and her students typically use to sop up specimens.

''We tried paper strips, we tried micro pipettes, nothing,'' she said. ''The mucus stuck in everything.''

They finally worked out a method on sucking up the sludge with a super strong syringe.

One Researcher Dr. Thomasy suspects the tears texture helps them stick to the eyeballs of the turtles, even when they're underwater. On land, though, it makes them for quite a spectacle. ''I would guess it would look like the worst snot you've ever seen,'' she said.

But Dr. Oria doesn't mind the turtle gloop : ''It's fun. It's like an adventure,'' she said. ''I forget all my problems when I am dealing with these animals.''

The Honor and Serving of the Latest Global Operational Research on Lord's Creations, continues. The World Students Society thanks author Katherine J. Wu.

With respectful dedication to the Researchers of and in Science, Students, Professors and Teachers of the world. See Ya all prepare and register for Great Global Elections on The World Students Society : wssciw.blogspot. com and Twitter - !E-WOW! - The Ecosystem 2011 :

''' Tears & Times '''

Good Night and God Bless

SAM Daily Times - the Voice of the Voiceless


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