DURING the second phase, the yellow vest movement addressed the issue of tax justice, and, finally, that of political representation.

The debate has shifted, opposing ''democracy of the people [in the sense of a capacity to fully achieve their will, without mediation]'' and ''liberal democracy, that of the rule of law guaranteeing the protection of rules and freedom.''

Defenders of the latter were quick to resort to arguments portraying the people as a potential source of danger, who might behave unrealistically if granted the prerogatives contained in the Citizens Initiative Referendum they demanded.

This is an instrument of direct democracy that would, were it to be adopted, allow citizens who gather a number of signatures set by law to bring about a referendum.

In any case, the yellow vests have rediscovered ''two traditional forms of social confrontation.''

The first is the strategy of slowdown; people ''certainly very honourable in everyday life'' decided to slow down the traffic, and to break traffic speed radars [to prevent the state from collecting revenue from speeding fines], thus taking over public space.

''And some of them,'' amazed at being gassed or baton-charged, who consider themselves honest people, have thrown a few punches. One defines oneself by one's adversary, We thrive by staging confrontation.''

The authors do not refer to here to rioters who represent, according to them, a marginal group.

The state, meanwhile, continues to have the power to repress, reinforcing the lack of understanding that divides the masses, to use a Marxist concept, from the elite.

In this way, the population has rediscovered the second traditional form of confrontation : it is no longer unaware that at each demonstration [or to use the terminology in vogue ''act''] the yellow vests will be up against the forces of law and order.

Bernard Huyghe and Damien Liccia look into the phenomenon to which the  European media  may give too much importance : that of populism, ''the political insult par excellence.''

The latter, varying from case - to - case, blame yellow vests for : ''the violence of their speeches, [or, indeed of their actions], their hatred of the elites, the claim to embody a genuine people without respecting their legal representatives-

Their disregard for norms, law or humanity when they contradict the political will of the people..........or their naivety : demanding the immediate implementation of their selfish claims, without taking into account hard facts, not least economic ones.

The honor and serving of the latest operational research on ''The Yellow Vests'' movement continues to Part 3. The World Students Society thanks author Dr. Nathalene Reynolds.


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