Headline September 25, 2016/ ''' *SNOWDEN* & SNOWBALL '''


THE FACT IS THAT  Edward J. Snowden   -*The Whistler Blower* opened America's eyes and changed even the world's conversation.

EDWARD J. SNOWDEN,  -the American who has probably left the biggest mark on  public policy debates  during recent years, is today an outlaw.

Mr. Snowden, a former National Security Agency's contractor who disclosed to journalists  secret documents  detailing the United States mass surveillance programs, faces-

Potential espionage charges, even though President Obama has acknowledged the very important public debate his revelations continuously provoked.

Mr. Snowden's  whistle-blowing  prompted reactions across the government Courts  found  the government wrong to use  Section 215 of the  Patriot Act to justify mass phone data collection.

Congress replaced the law with the  USA Freedom Act,  improving transparency about government surveillance and limiting government power to collect certain records. 

The president appointed an independent review board, which produced important reform recommendations.

That's just in the American government. 

*Newspapers that published Mr. Snowden's revelations won the  Pulitzer Prize*.. 
THE UNITED NATIONS issued resolutions on protecting digital privacy and created a mandate to to promote the right to privacy.

Many technology companies, facing outrage at their apparent complicity in mass surveillance, began providing  end-to-end  encryption by default. Three years on-

The news media still refer to Mr. Snowden and his revelations every day. His actions have brought about a   *dramatic increase*  in our awareness of the risks to our privacy in the  digital age   -and to the many rights that depend on privacy.

Eric H. Holder Jr, struck a remarkable measured tone in May, upon leaving office as the Attorney General. he recognised that while Mr. Snowden broke the law,  ''he actually performed a public service''  by raising the national debate on surveillance practices.

The law the Obama administration wants to use to prosecute him takes no account of whether revealing this information was a public service.

Under the antiquated Espionage Act of 1917, the only issue is whether ''national defense''  information was given to someone not authorized to receive it. 

It doesn't matter if the secrets revealed wrongdoing or if they endangered the national defense, whether they were passed on to an American journalist or to foreign enemy.

*There is obviously a public interest in enabling the government to keep some national security information secret.

*But under human rights law; the public interest  -not any particular government's interest   -is crucial*.

The protection of national security and public order may provide legitimate reasons for not disclosing certain sensitive information, but suppressing embarrassing or disturbing news does not.

No one should be prosecuted for exposing human rights violations. At the very least, there has to be genuine opportunity to offer a public interest defense. 

And just one more philosophic sweep, that the world must consider: 

ATHENS Democracies may be destined to dislike one another writes Nikos Konstandaras, a contributing editor. 
When people have a decisive voice in the government, they are guided by every interest, and that includes self-interest.

And they then, put their short time concerns before those of neighbours and partners.

In an effort to  channel this endless ebb and flow of passions, institutions provide framework of  ''rights''  and  ''wrongs,'' and governments function by persuading the greatest number of voters that they are doing the  ''right'' thing 

The Honour and Serving of the latest  Operational Research on   ''Law. Society and Justice'    continues. Thank Ya all for reading and sharing forward. And see you on the following one.

With respectful dedication to Edward J. Snowden, Students, Professors and Teachers teaching law. See Ya all on !WOW!  -the World Students Society and Twitter-!E-WOW!   -the Ecosystem 2011:

''' The Moral Authority '''

Good Night and God Bless

SAM Daily Times - the Voice of the Voiceless


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