Headline August 02, 2016/ ''' JUPITER *-STUDENTS-* JAVELIN '''


TWO HAPPENING CAN BRING THE WORLD  to its senses and unite it-
ONE -if  life is discovered on any one of the billion by billion of planets-

And those  form of life are hostile and come after us hammer and tongs with latest technologies, microbes and chemicals,  -or fire  gas clouds at us.

TWO, if the World Students Society  -most lovingly called !WOW! succeeds in driving home to the world, the very mercy of survival and peaceful  co-existence.

Be that it may, one thing is for sure, that the World Students Society does encourage and invite  Students From Other Planets to join up. But should such a happening arrive, it will be for the elected  *Students General Body* and   *Life Long International Committee Members*   to also deliberate and consider.

In the meantime, Students : Merium, Rabo, Haleema, Dee, Sarah, Saima, Malala [Nobel Prize], Saima, Mahnoor, Paras, Sorat, Eman, Armeen, Nayab, Aqsa, Little Angels Haanyia, Amaynah, Merium have to consider working hard on !WOW!  and  !E-WOW!:

To Free the World of Poverty and set up a  *Trip Wire Deterrence*  against these futuristic outer space invaders. Good Luck! 

A rival hypothesis argues that Jupiter formed without the need for a large rocky core, from a knot in the gas cloud itself. That would make it quiet a different beast from an overblown terrestrial planet.

One of Juno's jobs, then is to try, by measuring subtle variations in Jupiter's gravitational field, to determine whether the planet has a core, and if so, how big it is.

This will not, of itself, be enough to resolve the question of how it formed. But it should narrow the range of possibilities.  

Jupiter's atmosphere is another part of the puzzle. Back in 1997 Galileo dropped a probe into the atmosphere, and this probe reported back comparatively larger helpings of certain heavy elements, including nitrogen and argon, than are found in the sun.

This suggests either that Jupiter formed in the cool outer reaches of the early solar systems , where such elements would have been more abundant-

Before migrating to its current position, or that the heavy elements in question were supplied by comets and asteroids from those outer reaches.

But there was much less of one heavy element-oxygen-then there should have been. The probe detected little water, the compound into which gas-cloud oxygen is overwhelmingly bundled. 

So, either astronomers' theories of why Jupiter is blessed with so many heavy elements are wrong, or else, by sheer bad luck, Galileo's probe dropped into a particularly dry part of the planet's atmosphere.

There is evidence that something like that may, indeed, have happened. 

Observations by terrestrial telescopes suggested that the probe, which survived for less than an hour before contact was lost, ended up in the downdraft of a giant atmospheric convection cell.

This might well have been drier than the surrounding atmosphere because much of the water in it would have condensed and fallen as rain or snow when it was on the upward side of the convention cell.

Either way, says Dr. Bolton,  ''all we can do is go back and do it again''. 

And Juno will attempt just that, sampling a different part of the atmosphere with each of its diving loops. Combining measurements from all over the planet should help sort the theoretical sheep from the goats.

Nor is it theories of the formation of Jupiter alone that are at stake. The chance to poke and prod a gas giant up close could help to shed light on how planetary systems other than the sun's have formed.

One of the big surprises of exoplanetology, as the study of such systems is called, has been the discovery of a type of planet known as........ ''hot Jupiters''. 

These are gas giants which orbit close to their parental stars- in some cases having orbital periods measured in mere handful of days.

[By contrast the orbital period of Mercury, the planet closest to the sun, is 88 days]

*Everything researchers think they know about planet formation suggests such worlds  could not have formed in their present locations. The radiation from their parent stars would have disassembled them as fast as they formed.

The assumption, then is that they must have come into being elsewhere and then migrated closer to their stars. But how that happens, or how common it is, is still unclear.

Reconstructing the history of the  solar system's  own biggest gas giant could help astronomers understand how billions of other planets in the galaxy came into being, too. 

With respectful dedication to all the Leaders, Students, Professors, and Teachers of the world and on other planets. See` Ya all with your requests to join !WOW!  -the World Students Society and !E-WOW!  -the Ecosystem 2011:

''' Staying Out Of Range '''

Good Night and God Bless

SAM Daily Times - the Voice of the Voiceless


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