Headline, December 10 2021/ ''' '' GOD'S COSMIC GRAND '' '''


 GRAND '' '''

I AM EVER CONVINCED THAT ALMIGHTY GOD in his majesty and grandeur and eternal mercy, has blessed the work of the Global Founder Framers of The World Students Society for shining eternal success.

It's a great personal honor for the ordinary mortals to be so revered in millennia to come. ''We thank Almighty God for his blessings, and pray for the well being, and peace for entire mankind.''

FOR MILLENNIA ASTRONOMERS AND STUDENTS have meticulously observed the night sky, and while stars, planets and the sparkling band of dust known as the Milky Way had always-

Always been the main attractions something else too eventually began to catch their eye. Small fuzzy objects that could just barely be made out with the naked eye.

PERSIAN ASTRONOMER Abdur Rehman Ai-Sufi [ AD 964 ] was the first to discover such an object [ later called Andromeda ] and described it as a 'nebulous smear.'

Over the next many centuries astronomers continued to discover and catalogue more and more of these nebulae whilst their true nature remained elusive.

It remained a mystery whether some of these objects occupied the same space as the Milky Way and other celestial bodies in the sky or they were perhaps a realm of their own, located somewhere far off in the deep recesses of the cosmos.

German philosopher Emanuel Kant had termed those roughly round looking nebulae 'Island Universes'.

The debate surrounding these islands ranged on until the early twentieth century when astronomer Edwin Hubble successfully imaged Andromeda. The images revealed it to be a spiral dusty disk containing within it countless stars, similar to the Milky Way.

Hubble was also able to measure the distance to Andromeda which he determined to be about 6 million lightyears { the distance today is measured to be about 2.5 million light years }.

This put Andromeda much further than the Milky Way, making it in the words of Kant an Island Universe in its own right. Since then our understanding of galaxies has grown exponentially. For instance we now know unambiguously that a galaxy instead of being a Universe of its own is but a small building block in the grand cosmic enterprise.

To get some intuition for this consider the following scenario: if you were to point a pin at the sky, then the number of galaxies contained within the area covered by the pin head would number in thousands [ the Hubble telescope found 3,000!].

The grand total number of galaxies in the entire Universe is thought to be around 400 billion, with each of these being the home billions of stars, orbiting super-massive blackhole located in the centre.

The nearest of these galaxies can be found at distances as 'small' as 25,000 lightyears while the farthest are located as far as 13 billion lightyears.

Many years of painstaking observations and analysis had enabled astronomers to unravel the diverse and exotic realm of galaxies. One may be tempted to consider these building blocks as perhaps monotonous and homogeneous, but even a casual glance at deep space images will prove the opposite.

Generally the vast majority of galaxies are split into two distinct morphological types, spirals and ellipticals. The names themselves speaks volumes of characteristics of these categories.

Elliptical galaxies tend to be spherical and are redder in colour. They virtually possess no gas and thus have no ongoing star formation. Furthermore they are comprised of older evolved stars, which gives them their signature red dish hue [ older stars appear redder ].

Spiral galaxies in many ways present a stark contrast when compared to their elliptical brethren. For example spirals tend to be somewhat flattened and disk like.

They are named after the vast sprawling spiral arms of gas that seem to emanate from their centres. The spiral arms along with the planes of these galaxies are where new stars are coming into existence.

Therefore stars in spirals tend to be younger which is the reason why these particular galaxies are bluer in colour [ younger stars tend to be bluer].

The Honour of this Publishing continues into the future. The World Students Society thanks student Muhammed Zain Mobin, an astrophysics PhD student at the Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Torun, Poland.

With Most humble and respectful dedication to The Magnificence of Almighty God's creations and his Mercy, and then to Leaders, Grandparents, Parents, Students, Professors and Teachers of the world.

See Ya all pray for the success of The World Students Society - for every subject in the world : wssciw.blogspot.com and Twitter - !E-WOW! - The Ecosystem 2011 :

Good Night and God Bless

SAM Daily Times - the Voice of the Voiceless


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