Headline, July 06 2021/ ''' '' STUDENTS -WORKERS- SAFENESS '' '''


 SAFENESS '' '''

'' A LOT OF EMPLOYERS ARE NOW - AND SCHOOL DISTRICTS and building managers are now - thinking that they have solved the 'return to normal' problems using devices and all,'' Dr. Farmer said.

''So then they are not increasing ventilation rates. So then they are not taking total precautions, not increasing ventilation rates or adding other filters. And so that means that students and workers think they're safer than they actually are.


Although Covid-19 is the headline for health concerns, long-term building closures can present risks of their own. Plumbing systems that sit around unused, for instance, can be colonized by Legionella pneumophila bacteria that can cause s type of pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease.

''Long periods with stagnant, luke warm water in pipes - the exact conditions in many under-occupied buildings right now, can create ideal conditions for growth of Legionella, '' Dr. Joseph Allen said.

Some schools have already reported finding the bacteria in their water. in buildings with lead pipes or fixtures, high levels of the toxic metals can also accumulate in stagnant water. Employers can reduce both risks by turning on the water and letting it run, before reopening.

'' If you're still feeling uncomfortable or anxious about returning to school or work, that's totally understandable,'' said Joseph Allen, an expert on healthy buildings who teaches at T.H.Chan School of Public Health at Harvard University.

''This pandemic has affected all of us in profound ways, and people are going to be ready to re-enter life again or interacting with people at different times.

But scientists have learned a lot about the virus over the past year, and there are some clear, evidence- based steps that employers can take to protect themselves. Some of these strategies are likely to play dividends that outlast the current crisis.

'' I think it's important for us as a world community, but also as individual employers and school administrators to think about these questions in relation to not just this week or this month,'' said Alex Huffman, an aerosol scientist at the University of Denver.

''How de we make decisions now that benefit the safety and health of our work and life spaces well into the future?''


Because the coronavirus is thought to spread primarily through tiny, airborne droplets, employers should improve their ventilation and filtration systems before bringing workers back, experts said.

''One thing you can do before you go back to work is simply ask them what they've done,'' Dr. Allen said. ''And if you hear things like, 'Yes, we're meeting code,' then that's a flag that something's not right. They should be going above and beyond the bare minimum rates.''

Although the ideal ventilation rate varies, in general, employers should maximize the amount of fresh air coming in from outdoors, he said. In a relatively small space - say, the size of a typical classroom -employers should aim for four to six air changes per hour meaning that the air inside the space is being completely refreshed every 10 to 15 minutes. Opening windows can also improve air flow.


While ventilation and filtration are crucial, employers and building managers should stay away from foggers, fumigators, ionizers, ozone generators or other ''air cleaning'' devices that promise to neutralize the coronavirus by adding chemical disinfectants to the air.

''These are all really terrible ideas of things to do to indoor air,'' said Daphne Farmer, an atmospheric chemist at Colorado State University.

The compounds that these products emit - which may include hydrogen peroxide and, bleach-like solutions or ozone - can be toxic, inflaming the lungs, causing asthma attacks and leading to other kinds of respiratory or cardiovascular problems.

And there is not rigorous, real-world evidence that these devices actually reduce disease transmissions, Dr. Farmer said.

Surfaces pose minimal risk for coronavirus transmission, and disinfectants needlessly applied to them can also wind up in the air and can be toxic when inhaled. So in most ordinary workplaces, wiping down your desk with bleach is likely to do more harm than good, Dr, Farmer said.


In the early months of the pandemic, plastic barriers sprang up in schools, stores, restaurants, offices and other shared spaces. ''They can be great to stop the bigger droplets - really they're big sneeze guards,'' Dr. Huffman said. But the smallest, lightest particles can simply float over and around them.


Regular hand-washing, which can reduce the spread of all kinds of pathogens, is always a good idea. '' The messaging at the beginning of the pandemic about washing your hands and washing your hands for at least 20 seconds - that is totally valid and still really important,'' Dr. Hartmann said.

And when your office itself needs cleaning, a mild detergent will generally do the trick, she added : ''Soap and water is great.''

Masks, too, remain effective. ''If you're someone who's vaccinated and still feel anxious about going back to work, the best thing to do is continue to wear a mask for the first couple of weeks until you feel more comfortable,'' Dr. Allen said.

Scientists recommend that unvaccinated workers continue to wear masks in the office.

But for those who are eligible, the most effective risk reducing strategy is obvious, Dr. Allen said : '' The No. 1 thing is to get vaccinated.''


Social distancing may still have some benefits; if an employee is exhaling infectious virus, people sitting directly in that person's breathing zone will quite likely be exposed to the highest doses.

''If you were sitting at a shared table space, two feet away from someone, then there could be some potential value to moving away a little bit further,'' Dr. Huffman said.

But aerosols can stay aloft for hours and travel far beyond six feet, so moving desks farther apart is likely to have diminishing returns. ''Strict distancing orders like, such as the six-foot rule, do little to protect against long-range airborne transmission.'' Dr. Bazant said, '' and may provide a false sense of security in poorly ventilated spaces.''

The Honor and Serving of the Latest Global Operational Research on Safeness and Safety, for students and workers, continues. The World Students Society thanks author Emily Anthes.

With respectful dedication to the Corporate World, Education Administrators, and then Students, Professors and Teachers of the world. See Ya all prepare and register for Great Global Elections on The World Students Society : wssciw.blogspot.com and Twitter - !E-WOW! - The Ecosystem 2011 :

Good Night and God Bless

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