Headline, March 24 2021/ ''' '' PAKISTAN'S HISTORY PULVERIZER '' '''



IN HISTORIC ROMANCE - PROUD PAKISTAN - EVER AND MORE, was a haven home to a sustained flow of persecuted humanity from Central Asia after the Mongol invasion, and later during the expansion of the Czarist Empire when -

When the Khanates of Central Asia fell to the Russian armies in the 19-20th centuries. The British failed to conquer, the area of Balochistan in particular, by force ultimately resorting to treaty alliances, just like they did in present day Khyber PakhtunKhwa.

Pakistan occupies historically one of the most significant pieces of majestic land. The Indus Valley Civilization, along the Indus River and delta, is one of the oldest - larger than the ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamia civilizations.

At its peak with some five million people, human ingenuity in the Indus Valley invented newer handicrafts and metallurgy besides building well-planned cities / towns with public baths, drainage and water supply systems.

In prehistoric times, this pristine land had one of the largest and pervasive Buddhist kingdoms. Pushkalavati ruins near Charsadda, the stupas of Swat, Mardan and Takht-Bahi and Swabi; monasteries and universities of the Gandhara Civilization at Sirkap near Taxila, for example, attest to this richness.

Pushkalavati [1400 BC] - at the confluence of Rivers Kabul and Swat - was the capital of Gandhara Civilisation much later than the more famous Harappa, Moenjo Daro and other cities on the Indus.

It was founded by Pushkala, the nephew of Rama, son of Bharat, and is mentioned in the Ramayana, one of the two ancient Hindu epics. Pushkalavati was the crown jewel of the sprawling Bactrian Empire in Afghanistan / Central Asia that stretched up to and modern Taxila and modern day Taxila from, from 2500 BC to 1000 CE.

Swat had Buddhist universities just like the one in Neelum Valley [Azad Kashnir] and the entire area was famous worldwide for the learning of Buddhism. '' Sharda Peeth '' or University of Sharda [6-12th centuries CE] in Neelum Valley taught Mysticism, religion, philosophy, contemporary literature, alongside astronomy and logic. It became a seat of learning for later day Hindu scholars.

How many of us know that our Buddha is actually the fasting Buddha, contrary to his South East Asian incarnation later, where Buddha is smiling and healthy And that the Buddha statues of Bamiyan [Afghanistan] have a Pakistani connection?

Ashoka the Great's Maurya Empire [268 to 232 BC] covered almost the entire Indian Sub-continent stretching from the present day Afghanistan to Bangladesh.

Taxila was one of its two provincial capitals. It is the Buddhist Ashoka's famous ''chakra'' that today adorns the Indian flag. And his edicts on stone pillars advocated notions of social and animal welfare, much before the Western world.

Makran succumbed to the armies of Caliph Umar [May Allah be pleased with him] and remained part of the Umayyad / Abbasid Caliphate; ruled later by Turks and Persians. Subsequently Sindh, Makran and Balochistan became home to many wandering Arab/Turk princes around 7-8th centuries.

Kalhora Raj [1701-1783] by the erstwhile Arab nobility in Sindh - under Mughal tutelag - unified Sindh, improved literature and developed the irrigation system, making the area prosperous. Hyderabad city [1768] remains their legacy. The Kalhora Were replaced by the erhnic Baloch Talpurs [1783-1843].

When Mongol armies under Genghis Khan invaded the eastern part of Khwarazim Shah's Central Asian Empire, his energetic son Jalauddin inflicted a crushing defeat on the Mongols in the Afghan territory [1221 AD] - very daring then.

He made an audacious escape later, at present day Nizampur across the same mighty Indus, which Alexander's armies had crossed in 326 BC.

The Honor and Serving of the Latest Global Operational Research on Pakistan and the Region, continues. The World Students Society thanks author Inam ul Haque, major general retired.

With respectful dedication to the Great People of the Sub-Continent, and then Students, Professors and Teachers of the World. See Ya all Prepare and Register for Great Global Elections on The World Students Society : wssciw.blogspot.com and Twitter - !E-WOW! - The Ecosystem 2011:

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