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LUPIN - NARCOS - SHERLOCK : IN THIS EMERGING NEW LANDSCAPE of television  production - Americans ''remain very powerful,'' acknowledged Pascal Breton, founder and head of the Federation Entertainment production company.

THE EMERGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL PLATFORMS - mainly Netflix but also more recently Amazon and Disney+ -has played a leading role in driving appetite for content.

Bolstering its international appeal, Netflix has also set up subtitling for all its productions and dubbing many of them, allowing a non-English series like Lupin to top global viewing rankings.

At the same time, the explosion in the number of channels and platforms has generated an appetite for content never seen before, while redefining the notion of success. ''Something that 10 years ago was considered a failure now can easily be a success,'' explained Luca Barra, of the University of Bologna.

THE SUCCESS OF THE FRENCH crime series Lupin on Netflix - riding on the heels of hit Spanish show MoneyHeist - may hint at a waning US dominance on the small screen as ambitious European, Latin American and South Korean players kick down the doors on screaming platforms.

''Ten years ago, 90% of creativity was in the United States,'' said Pascal Breton, founder and head of the Federation Entertainment production company. ''There were some good little local creatives, but it didn't travel.''

But the increase in Internet speed, the rise of on - demand television and the example given by American pay channels, led by HBO, have pushed their counterparts abroad to bet on TV shows, having many relied on cinema and sport in the past.

Spiral, Carlos or Braquo, all produced for Canal+, highlighted a growing global appetite for non-anglophone TV productions and series.

They were followed by shows from public channels such as 2010-13 Danish political phenomenons Borgen and, from 2010, the British Sherlock which, despite being made in English, had a particularly non-American flavour.

Luca Barra of the University of Bologna, co-author of a study on European Television shows, said improved standards had been driven by pay TV stations trying to differentiate themselves from public broadcasters by coming up with the kind of premium content you used to only see on the big screen.

Channels, he said, noticed that their premiums ''was not just a distinctive feature of every national market but something that had an appeal also in other markets.''

This ''change in mentality'' has also favored the development of transnational production companies such as Federation Entertainment - particularly in Europe - to cope with significantly increasing budgets, he said.

REBALANCING : To gain a foothold overseas, US platforms produced local content in several countries, through production houses based there.

In South Korea, and now in Europe, video-on-demand services on the Internet are also required to contribute financially to the audiovisual sector in the country where they are established.

For Jonathan Gray, a professor at the University of Wisconsin, non-US production companies have also integrated narrative structures that can be exported abroad, all the way to the United States.

''I think the American palate, which is sort of notoriously conservative or boring when it comes to television, has been incorporated by overseas producers who have been stretching it a bit better, but still within recognizable form,'' he said.

Following the footsteps of English-language productions, shows are more and more often devoted to ''subjects and narrative forms which are much more international,'' added Breton.

''Be it Versailles or Saint Tropez, these are global subjects,'' he said. They reach an international audience, like [the] Mafia and Italy in Gommrah or Colombia and the drug traffic in Narcos.

The Honor and Serving of the Latest Global Operational Research on TV, and Changing Times, continues. The World Students Society thanks authors AFP.

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