MODERN capitalism was the first-born of the Industrial Revolution and the banking system was its father.

Throughout the Cold War, the capitalist and communist camps were busy uprooting one another.

In its raw form, capitalism was a system based on individual rights and private ownership - like basic human rights. But with banks giving huge loans to favorite individuals, allowing them to own property and develop industry they would never have on their own, created a capitalist elite that has to keep growing bigger, to the point it practically owns state machinery and be able to manipulate all sources of livelihoods.

Furthermore, the capitalist ideal is based on constant-growth model, because once you stop growing you will immediately be engulfed by competitors.

This ''never enough'' formula not only increased the rich-poor divide worldwide, but also exhausted Earth's resources, destroyed and polluted the environment, accelerated global warming, and revamped culture and societies in fashions suiting the profiteers.

All these concepts needed mentioning because when the cold war ended as a result of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the United States became the sole super power in the global arena and sought to rule over the world with a unified world order that would benefit itself above all others.

It was the accumulative of all such conceptual ideas that would become the slogan the US would present to the world as the solution to all human misery, and that only they could bring that. This accumulative would be called globalisation.

In fact, globalisation is the evolved form of capitalism at the global scale.

JH Mittleman has described globalisation as ''a historical transformation in the economy of livelihoods and modes of existence; in politics, a loss in the degree of control exercised such that locus of power gradually shifts in varying proportions above and below the territorial state; and in culture, a devaluation of collectivity's achievement or perceptions of them''.

Moreover, the dilemma of globalisation has been that as it grew on the swiftly growing means of transport and communication it allowed the crossover of ideas, art and cultures.

At the same pace it has facilitated the cancerous spread of terrorism across state borders to the extent that it became the new mask for proxy wars that had been so much in vogue since the Cold War.

With globalised terror came the international regime of the War against Terror, doubly severing the nation-state.

The first severing by the non-state actors that tore the stage from within and the second by the super-national regimes that deemed themselves right to obliterate national sovereign borders as they championed world peace.

In this pursuit states have been rampaged by the most powerful military tools, sometimes for harbouring these terrorists, or for trying to fight off ''good rebels'' or even for being labeled as terrorist states.

Presence of terrorists in a state, whom the state itself deems as their enemy and is fighting against, has been used as a legitimate reason to wage war upon that state.

The ''proxy'' has in fact taken many new forms. In this new globalised world, a state population is influenced by information through electronic media from abroad.

Foreign governments establish channels that aim to communicate directly with the publics of the target nations, giving them the power to mould the public against their national and ideological interests.

Foreign governments also influence the electoral process not only by donating money to favourites but by spreading disinformation through fake social media accounts.

From the Westphalia effort to bound nations in spatial boundaries wherein they would be free to exercise their will and ensure their prosperity, saving them from the endless wars of imperial lust between kingdoms, they advocate slogans of liberty and humanitarianism to the untrained masses.

This is despite the freedom of the free market and aid of supernational forces, individuals and state corporations, who aim to maximise and secure the profits of these markets and are shredding the nation-states into unbridled chaos.

The World Students Society thanks, yet again, Aneela Shahzad, a geopolitical analyst.


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