''TECH jobs can be seen as the manufacturing jobs,'' said Byron Auguste chief executive of Opportunity@Work, a nonprofit group that focuses on work-force issues.

There are bright spots, but those programs remain mostly small scale so far, expanding quickly has many complications.
Training, mentoring and counselling people - often from disadvantaged backgrounds is not a mass production process.

''The idea that tech jobs are going to create a substantial middle class anytime on the foreseeable future, is unrealistic,'' said Hal Salzman, a professor at the John J. Hieldrich Center for Work Force Development at Rutgers University.

Calculations by Professor Salzman and Khudodod, a graduate student, show 70 percent growth in information technology jobs over 15 years, to 4.7 million in 2018. But that total is far fewer than half the 12.8 million manufacturing, a sector that shed 1.5 million jobs over that span.

About one-fourth of the tech jobs are held by workers without four-year degrees, the researchers estimated.

A growing number of nonprofit organizations focus on pathways to tech related jobs. Some work in single communities, while others have national reach, like TechHire, Skillful, Per Scholas and Year Up.

The ventures, supported by foundations, corporations, and state and local governments, are trying to tap into a broad shift in the labor market.

Most tech jobs are no longer in the tech industry, an increasing trend that experts say promises to create jobs in fields like marketing, health care and finance.

But the tech-centered initiatives have a long way to go before they touch a swath of the labor market anywhere close to the size of manufacturing.

Year Up, one of the oldest, largest and fastest-growing in the group, illustrates the evolution of , potential and limits of the model. A nonprofit organization founded in Boston in 2000, it started with computer help-desk support and repairs.

But it has continuously adapted to shifts in technology, updating and adding courses that include  quality assurance testing, network administration, web development, software engineering, cybersecurity and data analytics.

It also offers offers ones in specific industries like fraud detection in finance.

Year Up has 15,500 alumni, and 4,700 people in its program this year. It is intended for low-income  people, mostly from 18 to their mid-20s, those selected received six months of occupational and general skills training, followed by -

Six-months of occupational and general skills training, followed by six-months of internship at an employer, and they are paid modest monthly stipends.

The honor and serving of the latest global operational research on Jobs, Labor Markets and Hopes, continues.


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