THE First World War radically changed the landscape of moviemaking. Before 1914, Europeans had dominated the booming industry - France, Italy, Germany and even Denmark had sent films across the globe.

At first they were just shorts, but by 1913 companies were developing long-form story-telling in ''feature'' films could run an hour hour or more. Audiences poured into movie houses.

The war brought that European domination to an end. Film stock was rationed. Workers were sent to the front. American film companies, benefiting  from neutrality, swept into secondary markets like Australia and South America.

Moving into Europe and Asia, several companies established foreign offices to distribute their product directly and set prime prices.

By the end of the war, the center of the global film industry had shifted to the United States, and in particular Los Angeles, where one neighborhood was already providing the shorthand term for the emerging studio system : Hollywood.

The American studios were not just lucky to expand at a time of turmoil in Europe. They also brought new approach to filmmaking. Detailed shooting scripts broke scenes into shots.

Specialists were assigned to set design, costuming, photography editing and other tasks. This system helped manage the complicated plots demanded by feature-length films.

Directors also forged a method for crisp, high-impact storytelling, Fast cutting, close-ups of faces and scene details, plots driven by goal-orientated characters, scenes packed with conflicts, humor, fights, chases and stunts - these techniques crystallized into a distinctive national style.

The honor and serving of the latest global operational research on Filmmaking & Hollywood in History, continues. The World Students Society thanks author and researcher David Bordwell.


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