Headline July 20, 2017/ ''' *PAINS... \ CERTAIN / ...PAINS* '''

''' *PAINS... \ CERTAIN / ...PAINS* '''

'' ZILLI- ZILLI '' : 'BILLIONAIRE STUDENT FARAZ MAJEED and billionaire student : Syed Ali Hassan/Masters U.S., should inaugurate-

And begin the process- Of getting the students of *Proud Pakistan* thinking *Global Elections and Election Processes*' .

Every student above 15 years of age should be on -!WOW! -the World Students Society -that belongs to every single student in Proud Pakistan, just as it belongs to every single student in the world.

''Now, Zilli,'' see, if you and your team can further double, and if you feel the need, even triple your efforts, and give me a thorough brief on the state of students in:

Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Thailand, Brunei, Israel, Nigeria, Tanzania, Portugal, Spain, South Africa, Australia, Sir Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and on and on, I can go..........

STUDENT STEVEN PETE was born in 1981 in the 2,200 -person town of Castle rock, Washington, near Mount Saint Helens

At around 6 months old, when Pete started teething, he chewed part of his tongue. As he got older he would bang his head against walls, not even stopping when it became swollen or indented.

His parents made him wear a helmet, and they wrapped his arms and legs in long socks, securing them with duct tape, to prevent him from at his own limbs. His younger brother Chris, had many of the dame symptoms and all the same fearlessness. 

A day didn't pass when one of them didn't bleed or bruise. But lest I proceed further, let me first, pick the strand of the sufferings of Teacher Pam Costa.
Student Stephen Waxman is now 71- With oval-shaped glasses that rest on the ridge of his nose when he reads and eyebrows that arch toward each other like upward-facing arrows.

He spent nearly half a century trying to chart the molecular and cellular pathways involving pain, and for much of this time Waxman was interested in the sodium channels found in the membranes of neurons -portals that allow charged particles to flow in and out of the nerve cells.

In particular, he believed that one of those sodium channels, Nav1.7 played an especially powerful role in how we experience pain.

In his theory, a stimulus triggers the Nav1.7 channel to open just long enough to allow the necessary amount of sodium ions to pass through, which then enables messages of stinging, soreness or scalding to register in the brain.

When the trigger subsides, Nav1.7 closes. In those with faulty Nav1.7 channels, sensations that typically wouldn't register with the brain are instead translated into extreme pain.

That was his theory, anyway. As the Chinese researchers were finalizing their results, Waxman's team was searching for human subjects with some form of inherited pain, so they could their sodium-channel genes and and test the Nav1.7 hypothesis.

Among the genes they wanted to sequence was SCN9A, which encodes Nav1.7 and determines whether it works. When Maxman learned that the Chinese scientists had discovered a link between SCN9A and erythromelalgia, he thought:

''My God, we've been scooped.'' The Chinese seemed to have solved a mystery he'd spent much of his career examining.

As Waxman dug deeper into the report, though, his mood lifted. The Beijing group had linked SCN9A mutations to main on fire, but they didn't explain or uncover how they were linked.

For Wxman and his team, there was still an opportunity to connect the biochemical dots between faulty SCN9A genes, dysfunctional Nav1.7 channels, and man on fire. 

To do that, they needed to show how cells with mutant Nav1.7 channels would react to pain. Thanks to the Beijing group, they knew just where to look : families with erythromelalgia.

This is how Waxman first encountered Pam Costa's family. He reached out and began gathering DNA from 16 of her cousins, aunts, and uncles who suffer from erythromelalgia.

He sequenced their genes and used them to create faulty Nav1.7 channels, which he added to cells; he then tracked how these channels responded to stimuli.

The result not only demonstrated that SCN9A mutations made Nav1.7 channels more likely to open [meaning harmless stimuli often triggered feelings of pain] but also showed that when channels opened, they did so for longer, amplifying the feeling of discomfort.

It was the breakthrough Waxman had spent his life working toward. ''We now had a fully convincing link from Nav1.7 to pain. '' this meant that if his team could somehow regulate or even turn off the Nav1.7 channel, they could regulate or even turn of how we experience certain kinds of pains.

And then, and incontinuation.........

When his parents took Pete to a local pediatrician, they explained that they did not think he felt any pain. Maybe neither son did. The pediatrician hadn't heard of a condition that prevented someone from experiencing pain, but after weeks of research-

He found over 40 similar cases, including four siblings in Birmingham, England. 

The Pete boys were eventually diagnosed with congenital insensitivity to pain, and though the condition was likely passed down from one generation to another, there was no known cause, much less a cure.

Pete went on to live what appeared to be an ordinary life. In 2003, while working a security job at a mall, Pete met Jessica online. ''We talked on the phone for hours,'' Jessica remembers.

Pete told her about his painlessness, and at the time she didn't think much of it. ''I guess I was like, 'That's pretty cool,' she says now with a shrug. They married in 2005, and he started working at the Cowlitz Indian Tribe Health and Human Services Department..

All that time, he was unaware that just a few hundred miles north, outside Vancouver, British Columbia, a small company was inching toward a breakthrough in understanding his condition.

For years that company, which is now called Xenon Pharmaceuticals, had been working to understand rare-single-gene disorders such as familial exudative vitreoretinopathy [which causes vision loss]-

In order to create drugs that could be used to treat more common disorders with similar symptoms [like other conditions involving vision loss].

In 2001, the company heard about a family in Newfoundland in which four members could not feel pain.

One of the sons ''actually stood on a nail and it had gone through his foot,'' says, Robin Sherrington, then senior director of biological sciences at Xenon.

''He had no idea that it happened until he got home and his parents saw it.'' No gene had yet been linked with their condition, but given the familial links in the Newfoundland case, Xenon researchers suspected it was genetic.

They started hunting for more subjects.

The Honor and Serving of the latest Operational Research on Research, Medicine, Scientists, and Discoveries continues.

With respectful dedication to the Students, Professors and Teachers of the World. See Ya all on !WOW! - the World Students Society and Twitter-!E-WOW! - the Ecosystem 2011:

''' When on !WOW! '''

Good Night and God Bless

SAM Daily Times - the Voice of the Voiceless


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