TO THE GROWING LIST OF PROBLEMS  brought about by  June's  ''Brexit''  vote, you can add corporate profits in the United States and many more countries in the world.

The pace of  earnings growth for companies in the  Standard & Poor's 500-stock index has been declining since the third quarter of 2014, and it officially turned negative a year ago.

Because stock prices tend to follow the general path of profits, this helps to explain why the broad stock market may have been generally flat over the last two years.

Artificial Intelligence companies are going to call into question all projections for global growth, and that's an additional headwind for the deep development of A.I.

Silicon Valley's new  A.I.  era underscores the region's ability to opportunistically reinvent itself and quickly follow the latest tech trend.

''This is the heart's of the region's  culture that goes all the way back to the Gold Rush,''  said Paul Saffo, a longtime technology forecaster and a faculty member at  Singularity University:

''The Valley is built on the idea that there's always a way to start over and find a new beginning.''  

The Valley's tendency towards reinvention dates back to the region's initial emergence from the ashes of a deep aerospace industry recession as a consumer-electronics manufacturing center producing memory chips, video games and digital watches in the mid-1970s.

A malaise in the personal computing market in the early 1990s was followed by the  World Wide Web  and the global expansion of the consumer Internet.

A decade later, in 2007, just as innovation in mobile phones seemed to be on the verge of moving away from silicon valley to Europe and Asia. Apple introduced the first iPhone, resetting the mobile communications marketplace and ensuring-

That the valley would   - for at least another generation   -remain the world's innovation center.

In the most recent shift, the A.I. idea emerged first in Canada in the work of cognitive scientists and computer scientists like Geoffrey Hinton,  Yoshua Bengio and Yann LeCun during the previous decade.

The three helped pioneer a new approach to  ''deep learning'', a machine leaning method that is highly effective for pattern recognition challenges like  vision and speech.

Modeled upon a general understanding of human brain works, it has helped technologists to make rapid progress in a range of A.I. fields.

How far the  A.I. boom will go is a hotly debated. for some technologists, today's technical advances are laying the groundwork for truly brilliant machines that will soon have human-level intelligence. 

Yet  Silicon Valley has faced false starts with A.I before. During the 1980s, an earlier generation of entrepreneurs also believed that  Artificial Intelligence was the wave of the future, leading to a flurry of start-ups.

Their products offered little business value at the time, and so the commercial enthusiasm ended in disappointment, leading to a period now referred to  as the  ''A.I.Winter.''

The current resurgence will not fall short this time, said several investors, who believe that the economic potential in terms of new efficiency and new applications is strong.

''There is no chance of a new winter", said Shivaon Zilis, an investor at Bloomberg Beta who specializes in machine start-ups.

John Shoch, a venture capital specialist at  Alloy Ventures  in Palo Alto, California, said deep learning has made a difference to potential success of A.I. companies. ''You get a new set of tools that let you attack a new set of problems, which let you push the boundary out.'' he said.

For others, Like  Jerry Kaplan, who helped found two  A.I. companies in the 1980s   -Symantec,  which became a security company, and TeKnowledge, which ultimately shut down    -the Valley's new  enthusiasm is troubling because it suggest an-

Unfounded optimism similar to earlier eras in which the field overpromised and underdelivered.

''Sometimes when  I hang around with  A.I. enthusiasts here in the valley, I feel like an atheist at a convention of evangelicals,'' he said. 

With respectful dedication to the Scientists. Technologists, Students, Professors and Teachers of the world. See Ya all on !WOW!  -the World Students Society and !E-WOW!  -the Ecosystem 2011:

''' Great New Things '''

Good Night and God Bless

SAM Daily Times - the Voice of the Voiceless


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