Sadaf Faisal Bhopal
MBBS student

Diabetes mellitus, one of the most rampantly prevalent disease world over is a syndrome of impaired carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism caused either by lack of insulin secretion (type 1) or decreased sensitivity of tissues to insulin (type 2).
Type 1 diabetes or juvenile onset diabetes usually occurs in younger age groups, around 14 and is caused by viral infections, autoimmune disorders or has a hereditary predisposition leading to destruction of pancreatic beta cells which release the hormone insulin.
Type 2 diabetes has a later onset, around 30 yrs of age and results due to cells of the body developing resistance to insulin. Some studies suggest that there are fewer receptors on cells for the hormones while others suggest abnormalities in the signaling pathways that link receptor activation with multiple cellular effects. A leading cause of adult onset diabetes is obesity and weight gain which in prevalent times is becoming a great health hazard due to increased consumption of trans fat (synthetic fat that the body cannot digest and metabolize) which forms a major constituent of the junk food that youngsters consume these days. Pregnancy, mutations, and polycystic ovary syndrome are a few other factors leading to this type of diabetes.
Diabetics show raised blood glucose levels, above 110mg/100ml of blood(the upper limit of normal). This leads to loss of glucose in urine (glucosuria) and thus results in increased urine formation, dehydration and thirst. Also there is increased risk of heart attack, stroke, hypertension, renal dysfunction, cataract, blindness and decreased sensation in the extremities.
Diabetes is a treatable disease and can be kept under control by administration of synthetic insulin obtained by genetic engineering and also by dieting, exercise and weight loss to reverse the insulin resistance.


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